Geology of Iraqi Kurdistan in the zoom of my camera

Geology of Iraqi Kurdistan in the zoom of my camera 

By: Professor

 Kamal Haji Karim, University of Sulaimani,

kamal.karim@univsul.edu.iq

The below pictures are taken  during geologic  field trip in the Zagros Orogenic belt  and published on my facebook account

https://www.facebook.com/kamalhajikarim

 

 

A large lensoidal submarine channel filled with gravels (conglomerate now) in the lower part of the Tanjero Formation (sandstone, marl and conglomerate). There is an unconformity between Lower and Upper part of the formation near Deri village 7 km south of Mawat Town. The rocks belong to Maastrichtian (68 million years before present,

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1278085788909987&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

 

 

An angular unconformity between conglomerate of Tanjero Formation (Maastrichtian) and Red Bed Series (Paleocene) between Hero and Ganau village on the southern lower side of Bulfat Mountain, East of Qaladiza town. To the the photo open the link;
نەگونجانێکی گۆشەیی لە نێوان بەردەچەوی پێکهاتووی تانجرۆ وە چینە سورەکانی پالیۆسین لە نێوان دوو گوندی هێرۆ وە گەناو لە بناری خوارووی شاخی بوڵفەت لە رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی قلادزە

To the the photo open the link; https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1269370126448220&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Drawing and writing of sheep shepherd on sandstone of upper Fars Formation, at the toe of Haibat Sultan mountain, 5 km east of Koyia Town.It belongs to 1995-1996
نوسین و وێنەی دروست کراولە لایەن شوانەوە لە سەر بەری لمی پێکهاتووی فارسی سەروو لە بناری شاخی هەیبەت سوڵتان لە ٥ کم شاری کۆیەکە دەگەرێتەوە بۆ سالانی ١٩٩٥-١٩٩٦

To the the photo open the link: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1247859191932647&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Surface of a bed in the middle of Kometan Formation (Santonian), near Hezob bridge, north east of Koyia town, shows trace fossil (gastropod dwelling traces or thalassinoides). The traces are vertical, inclined and horizontal burrows (or may contain boring too), they are filled with glauconite. because they can not tolerate 50 Centigrade on Kometan outcrops under direct sun.
چینێکی پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان لە نزیک پردی هیزۆب لە سەروی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری کۆیە کە شوینەواری گیاندار ی گاسترۆپۆد پیشان دادات کە تەمەنی ٨٥ ملیون سالە وە شوێنەوارەکە بە شیوەی کونی شاوڵی یان ئاسۆی یە کە پڕ بووە لە معدنی گلاوکۆنایت

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1244779145573985&set=pcb.1244785565573343&type=3&theater

 

 

A faulted anticline inside Qulqula Radiolarian Formation, at 5 km north of Sarkhwar village , Sharbazer area
چەماوەیەکی لێک ترازاو لە ناو پێکهاتووی قولقولە لە ٥کم سەرووی گوندی سەرخوار لە ناوچەی شارباژێر

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1224026984315868&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

A fault bend fold inside carbonate of the Upper part of Qamchuqa Formation (Early Cretaceous) 600 m to the north of Qaranguey village Dokan (Dukan) area، with Fahmy Osman Mohammad
سەرەچەماوەی دروست بوو بە هۆی چەمانەوەی ترازاو لە ناو بەردی کلسی بەشی سەرەوەی پێکاتووی قەمچوغە لە ٦٠٠ م ی باکوری گوندی قەرەنگوێ لە ناوچەی دووکان

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1220740214644545&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

A new research paper about reasons for rotation of joint directions around valley sides.The photo shows a valley along southwestern limb of Qishlagh (Bazian Gorge) anticline, it can be seen that joints are changing direction for more than 40 degrees along valley sides.
بابەتێکی توێژینەوەیەکی تازەمان لە سەر هۆی سورانەوەی ئاراستەی درزی بەردەکان بە دەوری لاپاڵی دۆلەکاندا. ووێنەکە دۆڵێک پیشان دەدات لە شاخی ( سەرە چەماوەی) قشلاخ کە تێدا درزە زیاتر لە ٤٠ پلە سوراتەوە بە دەوری لاپالی دۆڵەکان دا

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1218511638200736&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

In the many research papers and books, tens of strike slip faults are indicated and mentioned in Iraq, but when some of them are checked by me in the field no one of them shows displacement (2.5 m) better than this one in the photo below which shows a strike slip fault at 200m to the west of Banikhelan Village in side Lower Fars Formation. It located near my post (photo) on 8-6-2016.
لە عێراق و کوردستان گەلێک سترایک سلیپ فۆلت دیاری کراوە بەڵام ئەوانەی من بینیومن هیچیان تەوە تر نین لەم دانەیە کە ٢.٥ م لەیەک ترازاوە لە ٢٠٠م خورئاوای گوندی بانی خێلان کە دەکەوێتە نزیک وێنەی کە رۆژی ٨-٦-٢٠١٦ بلاوکراوەتەوە

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1213990425319524&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Mesozoic oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) consist of rock deposited during Early Aptian (OAE1) and latest Cenomanian (OAE2) which are truly global in nature. During these times, the Ocean bottom the circulation was stopped and surface circulation intensified and surface organic production increases. The photo show northwestern limb of Kachali anticline at 30km northeast of Sulaimani City on which both rocks of the two events are exposed as marl and marly limestone .
A Research Proposal with Dr Polla Khanaqa
وێنە دوو رووداوی گرنک پیشان دەدات لە پێش ١٢٥ OAE1 وە ٩٥ OAE2 ملیون ساڵ لە مەو بەر کە تێدا جوڵەی ئاو لە بنکی ئۆقیانەسەکاندا وەستاوە وە بۆتە هۆی بێ ئۆکسجین بون بەڵام لە سەر ئاوەکەی جوڵەکە زۆر بووە کە بۆتە هۆی زۆر بوونی موادی ئۆرگان کە لە ناو بردەکان دا نیشتووە. وێنەکە شاخی کەچەلی و دۆلی دۆلە توو پیشان دەدات لە ٣٠کم سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1212345025484064&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

Fault propagation fold inside Lower Fars Formation (Miocene) at 500m northwest of Bani Khelan village, 4km southwest of Darbandikhan town,
چەماوەی دروست بەهۆی لێکترازانەوە لە ناو ثێکهاتووی فارسی خواروو لە ٥٠٠م سەرووی رۆژئاوای گوندی بانی خێڵان لە ٤ب کم سەرووی رۆژئاوایی شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1211462348905665&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

The eastern side of the Belula gorge (southern limb of Sartak anticline) at 30m southeast of Darbandikhan town, shows several folds and a reverse fault inside Avanah Formation (Upper Eocene),
لاپاڵی رۆژهەڵاتی دەربەندی بێلولە لە ٣٠ کم خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان کە جەند چەماوەیەکی جیاواز پیشان دەدات لە گەڵ لیکترازانی پێچەوانە لە ناو پێکهاتووی ئاڤانە

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1208294762555757&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

Print of a grass body in sandstone of Upper Fars Formation, Near Darzila Village 25 km South of Sangaw Town, its age is about 15 million year before present.
کۆپی گیایەک لە ناو بەردی لمی پێکهاتووی فارسی سەروو لە نزیک گوندی دەرزیلە لە ٢٥ کم خوارووی شارووچکەی سەنگاو. گیاکە تەمەنی ١٥ ملیون ساڵ پێش ئێستایە

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1202041889847711&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

Sheath folding in limestone bed of Lower Fars Formation at 20 km of the Sangaw town, Awa Spi Area, the folding is non-tectonic and formed by collapsing of the underlying thick clay bed, the collapsing is due to liquefing of the clay by water during winter
چەماوەی جۆری قوماش لە بەردی لکسی پێکهاتووی فارسی خواروو لە ٢٠ کم خوارووی شارۆچکەی سەنگاو لە ناوچەی ئاوەسپی ، چەمانەوەکە تێکتۆنی نی یە وە دروست بووە بە هۆی شلبوونی چینەگلەکەی ژێرەوە بەهۆی ئاوی زستانەوە

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1199067906811776&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

Today with students and teachers of Department of Petroleum Geoscience(University of Soran ) on Kometan Formation (Ashbolagh mountain), Said Sadiq area
ئەمرو لە گەشتی زانستی لە گەڵ مامۆستاو خوێندکارانی بەشی نەوتی زانکۆی سۆران لە سەر پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان (شاخی ئاشبولاغ) لە ناوچەی سیدصادق

https://www.facebook.com/kamalhajikarim/posts/1192042887514278

 

 

Erosional channels inside claystone of Upper Bakhtiari Formation, the channels are filled with conglomerate, the paleocurrent is toward the observer and the photo looks northwest and taken at south of Taqtaq town.
جۆگەی هەڵکەندراو لە ناو بەردی قوڕی پێکهاتووی بەختیاری سەروو. جۆگەکە پڕ بووە لە بەردە چەو، وە رۆجوونی ئاو بەرەو تەماشاکەر بووە وە وێنەکە لە باشووری شارۆچکەی تەقتەق گیراوە وە بەرەو سەرووی رۆژئاوا گیراوە

To the the photo open the link: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1183921564993077&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

A large fault (lateral thrust) at 4 km to the northeast of Sangaw town, the photo is taken from Krbchina village. It can be seen the Kolosh Formation (Paleocene) rests on Anah Fn (Oligocene). The vertical displacement is about 150 meters لێکترازانێکی گەورە لە ٤ کم رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی سەنگاو لە شاخی سەگرمە ( قولەی عەجەم) . وێنەکە لە گەندی کربچنەوە گیراوە. تێبینی دەکرێت کە پێکهاتووی کۆلۆش وەستاوە لە سەر پێکهاتووی عانە. جووڵەی شاقۆلی .مەترە١٥٠

To the the photo open the link: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1178467828871784&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Asymmetrical ripple marks on more than ten beds of sandstones of the Lower part of Tanjero Formation at 2 km to the north of Sulaimani city in side Barzayakany Sulaiman village. ‌With Hemin Hama Salih and Ta Van نیشانەی ریپل مارکی ناهاوشێوە لە سەر زیاتر لە ١٠ چینی بەردی لمی بە شی خوارەوەی پێکهاتووی تانجرۆ لە ٢ کم سەرووی شاری سڵێمانی ناو گوندی بەرزایەکانی سلێمانی دا

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1173919435993290&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

Faulting and folding in Kometan Formation (90-70 m.y. before present), 200m northwest of Said Sadiq town,40 km east of Sulaimani city ترازان و چەمانەوە لە ناو چینەکانی پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان (٩٠ بۆ٧٥ ملیون ساڵ پێش ئێستا) لە ٢٠٠ متری سەرووی ڕۆژئاوای شارۆچکەی سید صادق

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1171621702889730&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

First published photos of hornfels and gneiss metamorphic rocks of Kurdistan on Bulfat mountain, Qaladiza area( see the three photos above)

بۆ یەکەم جار وێنەی بەردی گۆراوی هۆرنفێلس و نایس پیشان دەدرێت لە سەر شاخی بوڵفەت (کێلێ) لە ناوچەی قلادزێ

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1170859562965944&set=pcb.1170863529632214&type=3&theater

 

 

Normal fault in the metamorphic rocks of Bulfat mountain, at 4 km east of Darashmana village, Qaladiza Area

 لێکترازانی ئاسایی لە ناو بەردی گۆراوی شاخی بەڵفەت لە ٤کم گوندی دارەشمانە ناوچەی قڵادزە

   To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1167464683305432&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

New idea for Joint analysis: The two unloading stresses (forces) act on a slope and the joint is formed in the direction of resultant force which may activate sliding. the photo shows Kometan Formation in Dokan (Dukan) area and rock slide is occurred before two years.

بیرۆکەی تازە بۆ شیکردنەوەی جۆینت: دوو هێزی لابردنی بار کار دەکاتە سەر یەک لاپاڵ کە جۆینت دروست دەکات بە ئاراستەی پێکهێنەرەکە کە دەبێتە هۆی هەڵخزانی بەرد. وێنەکە پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان یشان دەدات لە ناوچەی دوکان کە دووساڵ پیش هەڵخزانی بەردی تیا رووداوە

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1165416873510213&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

ووشەوانی دێلتا کە شوێنێکی گرنگی نیشتنی نیشتوەکانە Terminology of Delta which is a depositional system, the photo is taken near my home

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1162581283793772&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

A part of Said Sadiq town during 1991 shows Kurds flee from attack of Sadam Regime after uprising.The right photos is the same present place بەشیک لە شارۆچکەی سید صادق لە کاتی کۆرەوەکەی سالی ١٩٩١. وێنەی لای راست ‌هەمان شوین پێشان دەدەات لە ئێستادا

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1160030994048801&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

The complexity of Kurdish history and land appear in this photo (at 4km down stream of Dokan dam) which shows an old castle in addition to a syncline and thrust fault in Tanjero Formation

ئاڵۆزی مێژوو وە خاکی کوردکە لە وێنەکەدا دەردەکوێت لە ٤ کم خوار بەنداوی دووکان ( قەشقۆلێ) کە قەڵا کۆنەکەو بنە چەماوەیەک دیارە لە گەڵ لێکترازانێکی نزم لە ناو پێکهاتووی تانجرۆدا

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1153723758012858&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

Cretaceous Formations (135-75 million years before present) in the Dola Tu valley, 30 km northeast of Sulaimani city، with Sardar Mohammad Ridha Babashekh پێکهاتووەکانی سەردەمی کریتێشەس(دەباشیری) ١٣٥-٧٥ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئێستا لە دۆلی دۆلە توو لە ٣٠ کم سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1144665532252014&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

This photo shows the folding (Red line) in lower part of the Qulqula Radiolarian Formation in between Hanji Mamand and Chinara villages. this photo is very important due to proving that folding in Zagros is formed by limb rotation not faulting.

وێنەی چاماوەکان لە ناو پێکهاتووی قولقولە لە بەینی دوو گوندی حاجی مامەندو چنارە. ووێنە روونی دەکاتەوە کە چەمانەوە بەهۆی سورانەوەی بالەکانی جەماوەکانەوە بووە نەک بەهۆی لێک ترازان

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1143647002353867&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

A reverse fault in the core of Darbandi Bazian anticline (mountain), the same layers are indicated by same numbers on both side of the fault, at 30 km west of Sulaimani city.

پچرانێکی پێچەوانە لە کرۆکی سەرەچەماوەی (شاخی) دەربندی بازیان، هەمان چینەکان لە هەردوو بەری پچرانەکە(دۆڵەکە) بە هەمان ژمارە دیاری کراوەن .

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1139753126076588&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

شاخی ئاسنگەران لە دۆلی چافایەتی کە لەسەرەچەماوە Syncline پێک دێت لە ناو پێکهاتووی قەمچۆغە Asingaran mountain which consists of a syncline inside Qamchuqa Formation, in the Jafayaty valley, 30 km northwest of Sulaimani city. The photo looks northwest with Rebaz Omer

To the the photo open the link: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1135964683122099&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

دڵ گران مەبە: شەر بۆ شوین هەر ڕەوشتی مرٶڤ و گیاندار نی یە بەڵکوو ڕەوشتێکی ئەبدی بەردەکانیشە کە بەهێز لاواز دور دەخاتەوە. وەکوو لە بەردی شاخی کوڕەکاژاو بەرچاو دەکەێت لاتغضب: الحرب للمکان لاتشمل الانسان والاحیاء فقط بل صفة ازلیة للصحور حیث القوی یقْصَی الضعیف مثلما تظهر فی صحور جبل کورەکاژاو Do not be angry, The battle for place not restricted to Human and organisms only but it is permanent character of the rocks as strong remove the weak ones which appears in the rocks of Kura Kazhaw mountain. The strata belong to Turonian-Campanian age (Kometan Formation)

To the the photo open the link:https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1134603983258169&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

This photo looks north which is taken at 2 km east of Barzinja Town and shows a syncline and a recumbent anticline in side Balambo Formation.

وێنەکە بەرەو باکوڕ گیراوە لە ٢ کم ی ڕۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی بەرزنجە کە بنەچەماوەیەک و سەرەچەماوەیەک پیشان دەدات لە ناو پێکهاتووی باڵامبۆ دا

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Today Trip: Synclines and anticlines as cheron folds inside Kometan Formation (Turonian-Campanian) on the southwestern side of Kura Kazhaw mountain at 40 km to the east of Sulaimani city and between Basak and Haji Mamand villages. The mountain is a about 2300 meters high and consists of a large syncline which contains tens of small folds like those shown in the photo.

گەشتی ئەمڕۆ: بنە چەماوە وە سەرە چەماوە لە شێوەی چیڤرۆن فۆلد لە ناو پێکهاتووی( چینەکانی) كۆمیتان لە لاپاڵی خوارووی رۆژئاوای شاخی کوڕەکاژاو لە ٤٠ کم ی ڕۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی لە بەینی گوندی باساک و حاجی مامند. شاخەکە لە بنەچەماوەیەکی(سینکلاین)ی گەورە پێکدیت کە دەیان چەماوەی بچوکی تێدایە لە شێوەی ئەوانەی لە وێنەکەدا پیشان دراوە

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An overturned anticline inside limestone beds of Kometan Formation, it can be seen that chert layer is faulted reversely near my palm. The limestone is not showing faulting because it behaved (deformed) plastically at great depth due to its softness while chert layer has deformed brittlely due to its high hardness

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Today Trip: two synclines and one anticline with Rebaz Omer and Bashdar Jalil The photos of the Sari Sora mountain at the West of Kazhaw village at the 30 kms to the north east of Sulaimani city, shows two synclines and an anticline in the Cretaceous Formations before 100 million years.The red line is Dokan Fn گەشتی ئەمڕۆ: دوو بنە چەماوە وە یەک سەرە چەماوە وێنە ی شاخی سەری سٶرە لە رۆژئاوای گوندی کاژاو لە ٣٠کم سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی . وێنەکە دوو بنە چەماوە وە یەک سەرەچەماوە پیشان دەدات لە پێکهاتووەکانی( چینەکانی) کریتێشەس پیش ١٠٠ ملیۆن ساڵ. خەتە سورەکە پێکهاتووی دووکانە

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Three photos of a part of the Shkawta Rash mountain (anticline) at the 20 kms to the east of Sulaimani city, 3km south of Poshen village, they show the Folding and caving pf the Cretaceous Formations. گەشتی ئەمڕۆ لە گەڵ ڕێباز عمر سێ وێنە ی خوارەو بەشێک لە شاخی ( سەرەچەماوە)ی ئەشکەوتەرەش پیشان دەدات لە ٢٠کم رۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی و ٣ کم خوارووی گوندی پوشێن. وێنەکان جەمانەوە وە ئەشکەتبوونی پێکهاتووەکانی کریتێشەس پیشان دەدەن

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Upper Cretaceous Formation along southwestern limb of the Ashkawta Rash anticline at 20 km east of Sulaimani city

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 Close up photo of The cave ( Kamal cave) which is shown in the other two photos, it is exist in the Kometan Formation in a core of an anticline due to presence of the stressed rocks and space in the core.

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Striation (linear furrows and ridges) on my thumb finger which is generated by movement (growth) of my nail which is similar to fault striation when one block moves on another due to faulting (see the left photo which show faulting in Tanjero Formation). رووشاندن لا سەر پەنجە گەورەم کە دروست بووە بە جوڵانی( گەشەکردنی) نینوک کە دروست بووە بە هەمان شێوەی رووشاندنی لێکترازان Fault کاتێک بلۆکێک دەجوڵێت لە سەر یەکێکی تر( تەماشای وێنەی لای راست بکە کە رووشاندنی لێکترازان پیشان دەدات لە ناوپێکهاتووی تانجرۆدا .

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A Reverse fault (thrust fault) in a sandstone bed of the lower part of Tanjero Formation directly at the northern boundary of Sulaimani city.   لێکترازانێکی پێچەوانە لە ناو چینەکانی بەردی لمی لە بەشی خوارەوەی پێکهاتووی تانجیرۆ کە راستەوخۆ دەکوێتە سنووری باکووڕی شاریی سلێمانی

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Many Geologists ask about the reason for bending and changing direction of the anticlines (Zimnako, Khushk, Bamo anticlines) at the north of Darbandikan town. The reason is confining of the anticlies between two hard and thick successions of conglomerates at the south and north of the anticlines. This confining and bending between conglomerates is similar to bending of pipes by confining (enclosing) between stronger moving arms of the device shown in the left photo. The moving of conglomertes is activated by tectonic force or stress.

  زۆر جیۆلۆجی پرسیار دەکات لە بارەی هۆی چەمانەوە و گۆرینی ئاراستەی ئەنتیکلاینەکانی زمناکۆ وە خوشک وە بەمۆ لە سەرووی شارۆکەی دەربەندیخان. هۆکە بریتی یە لە پۆندبوونی (حصربوونی) ئەنتیکلاینەکان لە نێوان دوو کۆنگلۆمێرایتی ئەستۆر و رەق لە باشور و سەرەوە. ئەم حصربوون و چەمانەوەیە لە چەمانەوەی بۆری دەچێت بەهۆی حصرکردنی بەهۆی ئەو ئامێرەی لە وێنەی چەپدا نیشان دراوە کە بۆریەکە حصردەکات نێوان دوو پارچە ( قۆڵی) ئاسنی جوڵاودا. جوڵانی کۆنگلۆمەراتە کە دەگەرێتەوە بۆ هێزی تەکتۆنی پلەیتی ئێرانی

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A tight and overturned anticline of a soft rocks (Baluti shale Formation) squeezed between hard layers of the same formation at 2km of the southeast of Ahmad Awa village, Halabja area.

ئەتیکلاینی باریک و هەڵگەراوە کە لە بەردی نەرمی پێکهاتووی بەلوطی پێکهاتوە کە لە لا ناوچینەکانی رەقەکانی هەمان پێکهاتوودا گوشراوە. لە دوو کم خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی گوندی احمد ئاوا ناوچەی هەڵەبجە

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A recumbent anticline in the Tanjero Formation near Bamo village . 30km east of Darbandikhan town, ئەنتیکلاین ێکی پاڵکەوتوو لە نزیک گوندی بەمۆ لە ٣٠ کم ی رۆزهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان

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Breakup (Deformation) of the Pila Spi Formation (45 million years before present)into four blocks near Sola village on the Baranan mountain, Qaradagh area. the breakage is due to sliding and faulting.

شکان و جیابوونەوەی پێکهاتووی پیلاسپی (٤٥ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئیشتا) بۆ چوار پارچە لە نزیک گوندی سۆڵە لە سەر شاخی بەرانان لە ناوچەی قەرەداغ

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شاری سڵێمانی دوێنێ پاش بەفربارین مدینة السلیمانیة یوم الامس بعد سقوط الثلج Sulaimani city, yesterday, after snow fall

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The beds ( layers) of the middle part of Tanjero Formation ( aged 65 m.y) from Darbandikan area , near Bamo village چینەکانی پێکهاتووی تانجرۆ ( تەمەنی ٦٥ ملیۆن ساڵە) لە ناوچەی دەربندیخان ، نزیک گوندی بەمۆ

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Coral fragments in the Govanda Formation, 10 km southeast of Penjween Town, near Tazade Village. The upper right corner photo shows the coral texture under microscope.

پارچەی مەرجان لە ناو پێکهاتووی گۆڤاندە لە ١٠ کم خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی پێنجوێن نزئک گوندی تازەدێ.وێنەکەی سەرەوەی لای راست چنراوی مەرجانەکە پیشان دەدات لە ژێر مایکرۆسکوبدا

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Sheath folds in the Pila Spi Formation in Bazian area, near Kani Shaitan restaurant

جەماوەکانی جۆری قوماش لە ناو پێکهاتووی پیلاسپی لە ناوچەی بازیان لە نزیک چێشتخانەی کانی شەیتان

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A plunging anticline and syncline in Pila Spi Formation in Bazian area near Kani Shaitan restaurant

 سینلاین و ئەنتیکلاین ( لە شوێنی نوقم بوون دا) لە ناو پێکهاتووی پیلاسپی لە ناوچەی بازیان نزیک چێشتخانەی کانی شەیتان

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Kamal Haji Karim with Arkan Osman and Sardar Saleem on the Middle part of Tanjero Formation (65 million years before present) at 30 km east of Darbandikhan Town near Bamo village. The succession consists of dark grey marl and bluish white marly limestone with frequent interbeds of brown sandstone.

بەشی ناوەراستی پێکهاتووی تانجرۆ (٦٥ ملیون ساڵ پێش ئێستا) لە ٣٠ کم رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان لە نزیک گوندی بەمۆ

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چینەکانی زەوی( پێکهاتوەکان) و درەخت: وێنەی شاخی کوڕەکاژاو( لە ناوچەی بەرزنجە) پیشان دادات کە درەخت زۆرتر دەڕوێ لە سەر پێکهاتووی گوڵنێری بە چاو پێکهاتووی باڵامبۆ وە کۆمیتان جونکە لە بەردی نەرم پێکدێت وە ئاو گل دەداتەوە

The formations and trees: The photo of the Kura Kazhaw mountain shows that trees have grown more on the Gulneri Formation than Balambo and Kometan Formations due to the softness (marly limestone) and its preserving of groundwater

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Similarity between land surface bioturbation (grass grazing by sheep) and sea sediments bioturbation (grazing of algae, fungi and bacteria by pelecypods). The left photo shows sediment mixing of the Qamchuqa Formation on Asos Mountain, Ranyia area. While the right photo shows present grass disturbance of the earth surface in the same area. The two photos show similarity in forms and causes لێکچونی تێکدانی گیای سەرزەوی( بەهۆی لەوەڕانی مەرەوە) وە تێکەڵ کردنی نیشتووەکانی بنی دەریا (بەهۆی گەرانی قاچە پێ( پلیسی پۆد) بەدوای کەڕوو وە بەکتریا) . وێنەی لای چەپ نیشتووی تێکچووی پێکهاتووی قەمچوقە پیشان دەدات لە سەر شاخی ئاسۆس لە ناوچەی رانی یە وە وێنەی لای راست تێکچوونی سەر زەوی هەمان ناوچە پیشان دەدات بەهۆی قاچی مەرەوە لەکاتی لەوەڕان دا . دوو وێنەکە زۆر لە یەک دەچن لارووی شێوە وە هۆکارەوە

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Zalim Valley on Avroman mountain from Halabja area shows the exposed rocks including Avroman and Qulqula Formations and thick Quaternary lithified alluvial deposits. This alluvial is composed totally of boulders and gravels of Avroman Formation and previously considered as Qulqula conglomerate. With Dr Kamal Haji Karim and Azheen Kamal Haji Karim

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Vertical anticline in bedded cherts of Qulqula Formation, near Kaolos village on the road between Said Sadiq and Penjween Towns. With my daughter Azheen and Dr Nawrast Sabah (from Basra University)

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The stone that can be put in Guinness Book of World Records for its degree of deformations (folding and faulting) the stone is stromatolitic limestone which belongs to strata of Barsarine Formation (Jurassic) in Galal valley, Barzinja area.

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ئەو بەردەی کە دەتوانرێت کە ناوی بخرێتە ناو کتێبی گینز بۆ زۆری ئەو تێکشکاندنانەی ( لە جۆری چەمانەوە و لە جێ چوون) کە بەسەری داهاتووە. بەردەکە بریتیە لە بەردی کلسی سترۆماتۆلایتی کە دەگەرێتەوە بۆ چینەکانی بێکهاتووی بارسەرین( لە چاخی جۆراسیک) لە دۆلی گەڵال .ناوچەی بەرزنجە

 

 

شەر مەکەن کورسی جیۆلۆجی زۆرە: ئەم نمونەیە تەمەنی ٢٢٠ ملیۆن ساڵە لە ناو پێکهاتووی ‌قوڵقوڵە لە دۆلێ زەڵم رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی احمد ئاوا

Geological chair inside Qulqula Formation (220 m.y before present), Zalm Valley, east of Khurmal Town

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پووڵەکەی ماسی کەتەمەنی ٩٥ ملیون ساڵە لە ناو پێکهاتووی گوڵنێری لە شاخی گۆیژە لە ناو باڵاخانەکانی قەیوان لە ٣ کم ی باکوری گوندی قرگە Different types of Cretaceous fish scales in the Gulneri Formation (Turonian age, before 95 million years) on Azmir mountain inside Qaywan buildings about 3km to the north of Qrga village the width of photos is 4mm

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M-Folding in Qulqula Formation, near Ahmad Awa village, 4 km to the east of Khurmal town

چەماوەی شێوە ئێم لە چینەکانی پێکهاتووی ‌قولقولە لە نزیک گوندی احمد ئاوا لە ٤ کم ی رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی خورماڵ

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A thrust fault (shown by my hand and by the arrow) in Marga valley, Dokan area , the photo looks east لێکترازانی تەخت (کە بە دەستم و خەتە تیر پیشان دراوە) لە دۆڵی مەرگە ، ناوچەی دوکان

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بۆچی نەوت نی یە لە ناوچەکانی دوکان، بنگرد ، رانی یە وە قەڵادزە؟ چینەکانی زەوی لەو ناوچانەی سەرەوەدا زۆر بە خراپی تێک شکاون وەکوو لە وێنەکە دیارە کە پانە بڕگەی ئەنتیکلاینی‌ قەرەسەرد (پێکهاتووی قامچوغە)بپیشان دەدات لە دەربەندی شێخ اسماعیل لە ٤کم سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی بەنداوی دووکان. ئەم جۆرە تێکشکاندنە دەبێتە هۆی نەمانی نەوت و نە پاراستنی لە ژێر زەوی دا

Why does oil not exist in the Dokan, Bingrd, Ranyia، and Qaadiza area? The strata (layers of the Qamchuqa Formation) of the above areas are intensely deformed as appear from the cross section of the Qarasard anticline in Shekh Esmail gorge at 4km northeast of Dokan dam. Due to the deformation, the oil is not preserved

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A reverse fault inside the Gercus Formation at 2 km east of Delezha village, inside Basara Gorge, at 30 km southwest of Sulaimani City. The fault may be anticline breakthrough fault. ڵێکترازانێکی پێچەوانە لە ناو پێکهاتووی جێرکەس لە ٢ کم ی گوندی دێلێژە لە ناو دەربەندی باسەرە، ٣٠ کم لە خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی. لێکترازانەکە بریتی یە لێکرازانی ائەنتیکلاین

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شاخی سنجار لە ساڵی ١٩٨٠ نزیک گوندی گابارە. پێکهاتوەکە سنجارە Sinjar mountain during 1980, near the Gabara village on Sinjar Formation

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Deformation(folding and fracturing) of limestone beds of Qulqula Formation along road cut in Zalim Valley, 3km to the northeast of Ahmad Awa village, Khurmal area

تێکشکاندنی (بەشێوەی چەمانەوە وە درزتێبوون) چینەکانی بەردی کلسی پێکهاتووی قولقولە بە درێژایی ڕێگای دۆلی زەلم ،٣ کم لە سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی گوندی احمداوا لە ناوچەی خورماڵ

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Downward shifting of springs mouth along the southern limb of Zimnako Anticline (mountain) at 4km southeast of Darbandikhan town. the Shifting is due to continuous uplift and erosion during Pleistocene and Recent times.

بەرەوە خوار شوین گۆرکێی دەمی کانی بە درێژایی شاخی زمناکۆ ( یان ئەنتیکلینی زمناکۆ) لە ٤ کم ی خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان .شوێنگۆرکێکە بەهۆی بەرزبوونەوە و داخورانی بەردەوامی شاخەکەوە یە لە کاتی پلایستۆسین و ریسنت دا

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Recumbent Folding (antiform) in the metamorphic rocks (originally Walash-Naoperdan Series) on Bulfat mountain2km north of Belko village . چەماوەی لەپاڵ کەوتوو لە شێوەی (انتیفۆرم) لە بەردی گۆڕاوی شاخی بوڵفەت لە ٢ کم گوندی بێلکۆ . چینەکان لە بنەرەتدا دەگەرێنەوە بۆ زنجیرەی والاش ناوپردان

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Compex folding inside Quaqula Radiolarian Formation, Near Norabab Village , Sharbazer area

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1008664832518752&set=a.435055263213048.125176.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

 

بۆچی نەوت نەدۆزرایەوە لە قەرەداغ (بەشی سێ یەم)؟ لەم وێنەیەدا دەردەکەوێت کە ناوچەی قەرەداغ و شاخی سەگرمە زۆر ئالۆزە لە رووی جیۆلۆجێ وە وەکوو لە وێنەو هێڵکاری یەکەدا دیارە کە بەشێک کە انتیکلاینی سەرەکی شاخی سەگرمە چەماوەتەوە وە سینکلاینێکی ‌هەڵگەراوەی دروست کردووە کە پێی دەڵێن شاخی کەوەلار . ئەم جۆرە تێکشاندنە زەحمەتە نەوت بپارێزێت

Why oil has not found in the Qaradagh Area The geology and structure of of Sagrma (or Sagerma) anticline and Qaradagh area are very complicated the photo shows the southwestern limb of the anticline that is deformed into overturned synclines which called Kawa Lar mountain. It is difficult for oil to be preserved in such deformed anticline

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A sample of limestone rocks of the Sagrma mountain (anticline) 4 km south of Qaradagh town.The sample shows Nummulite foraminiferas which were lived 50 million years before present in a sea which was covered Iraq and Kurdistan.The formation is Sinjar نمونەیەک لە بەردی کلس (بەردی قسڵ) ی شاخی سەگرمە لە ٤ کم ی خوارووی شارۆچکەی قەرەداغ. نمونەکە بەبەردبووی گیانداری فۆرامینێفرا پیشان دەدات لەجۆری نیومیولایت کە ٥٠ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئیستا لەو دەریایەدا ژیاوە کە عێراق و کوردستانی داپۆشیوە. پێکهاتوەکەی بریتی یە لە پێکهاتووی سنجار

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A sample of limestone rocks of the Zimnako mountain (anticline) 6 km east of Darbandikhan town. The sample shows Alveolina foraminiferas which was lived before 40 million years before present in a sea which was covered Iraq and Kurdistan.The formation is Avanah

نمونەیەک لە بەردی کلس (بەردی قسڵ) ی شاخی زمناکۆ لە ٦ کم ی ڕۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان. نمونەکە بەبەردبووی گیانداری فۆرامینێفرا پیشان دەدات لەجۆری ئەلڤۆلینا کە ٤٠ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئیستا لەو دەریایەدا ژیاوە کە عێراق و کوردستانی داپۆشیوە. پێکهاتوەکەی بریتی یە لە پێکهاتووی ئاڤانە

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Sargelu Valley (Dokan area) and the exposed formations دۆڵی سەرگەڵو ( لە ناوچەی دووکان) وە پێکهاتوەکانی دەرکەتوو لە ناوی دا

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WHY OIL HAS NOT FOUND ON PIRAMAGROON ANTICLINE? A folding in the Kometan Formation in the Qula Rash valley about 3 km to the south of Upper Hanaran village on the northeastern limb of the Piramagroon anticline in the Chaq Chaq valley, northeast of the Sulaimni city.The red lines show the axial planes of the anticlines and synclines. These structures do not help presentation of oil بۆچی نەوت نەدۆزرایەوە لە شاخی پیرەمەگروون؟ چەمانەوەی چینەکانی پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان لە دۆڵی قوڵە رەش لە ٣ کم ی خوارووی گوندی هەنارانی سەروو لە سەر باڵی سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی ئەنتیکلاینی ( یان شاخی) پیرەمەگروون لە دۆلی چەقچەق لە سەرووی ڕۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی. هێڵە سورەکان رووتەختی چەماوەکان پیشان دەدەن. ئەم جۆرە چەماوانە یارمەتی پاراستنی نەوت نادەدن ‌‌

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هۆی نەبوونی نەوت لە ناوچەی دەشتی شارەزۆر دەورووبەری لە وێنەی خوارەودا دەردەکەوێت کە چینە نیشتوەکان (پێکهاتوەکان)ی شاخی گرێزە بە توندی تێکشکاون. لە شێوەی انتیکلاین سینکلاین ئەم جۆرە تێکشاندنە لە چاڵە نەوتەکانی کەرکوک و تەقتەق دا نیە لە بەر ئەوە زەحمەتە نەوت لە ناوچەکەدا هەبێت. وێنەکە گیراوە لە سەر جادەی سلێمانی بۆ سید صادق لە ناو گوندی گرێزەوە

The reason for absence of oil in Sharazoor plain and its surrounding area? From the photo appears that the sedimentary layer (formations) of the Greza mountain are deformed in the form of anticlines and synclines which are not present in the Kirkuk and Taqtaq (Shiwashok) oil fields. Therefore, the area is very difficult to preserve oil. The photos are taken on the road between Sullaimani city and Said Sadiq town inside Greza village

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Folding in the Balambo Formation, directly to the east of Saraw Spring on the northern side of the road between Sulaimani city and Said Sadiq town. The change of the color, from grey, at the top of the hill to the white, at the base of the hill is due to color of bedding plane and cross section of the layers respectively چەمانەوە لە چینەکانی باڵامبۆ لە ڕۆزهەڵاتی سەرچاوەی سەراو لە بەشی باکووری شەقامی سەرەکی نێوان شاری سلێمانی و شارۆچکەی سید صادق. گۆرانی رەنگی چینەکان لە بۆرەوە لە سەرەوی گردەکە بۆ سپی لە خوارەوەی گردەکە دەگەرێتەوە بۆ رەنگی رووی چینەکان کە سپی دەردەکەوێت و رەنگی ئەستۆری( یان پانە برگە( کە بۆر دەردەکەوێت

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Normal fault inside Red Bed Series (Paleocene, 50 m.y. before present) which consists (at this locality) of red claystone and conglomerate (milky white). The arrow indicates the sigma one which has bended the layer into a syncline and normally faulted the layers. The locality is located at Chwarta (Chuarta) area on the paved road between Tagaran and Kani Sard village, 14 Kms northeast of Sulaimani city. لێکترازانی ئاسایی لە ناو زنجیرەی چیەنە سورەکان (٥٠ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئێستا نیشتوە) کە پێکهاتوە لە بەردی قوڕ وە بەردی چەو(سپی شیری). تیرەکە سیگمای یەک نیشان دەدات کە بۆتە هۆی چەمانەوەی چینەکانی لای چەپ ە دروست کردنی چەماوە بۆ خوارەوە وە (سینکلاین) وە دروست کردنی لێکترازانەکە . نشوێنەکە لە ناوچەی چوارتایە لە سەر جادەی قیرتاوی بەینی دوو گوندی تەگەران و کانی سار ١٤ کم لا سەروو ژۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی یەوە ٠

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بۆچی نەوت نەدۆزرایەوە لە لە ناوچەی دوکان؟ (بەشی دووەم) لەم وێنەیەدا دەردەکەوێت کە لە ناوچەی دوکان چینە نیشتوەکان (پێکهاتوەکان)ی زۆر بە توندی تێکشکاون. لە وێنەکە انتیکلاینێک پیشان دەدات کە چەندین فۆلتی (لێکترازان) تێدایە. ئەم جۆرە تێکشاندنە لە چاڵە نەوتەکانی کەرکوک و تەقتەق دا نیە وە زەحمەتە نەوتیان تیا بپارێزرێت. وێنەکە گیراوە لە ٢کم ی رۆژئاوای گوندی كلکە سماق (٤کم لە رۆژئاوای شارۆچکەی دوکانی خوارەوە.

Why oil has not found in the Dokan area ? The Sedimenty layers (formations) of the Dokan area are deformed intensely. This deformation can be seen from the photo which shows an anticline in Kolosh Formation that contains several faults. This type of deformation not exist in the Kirkuk and Taqtaq oil fields and very rarely can preserve oil accumulation. The photo is taken 2 kms to the north of the Klka Smaq village at 4 km to the west of Lower Dokan town.

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بۆچی نەوت نەدۆزرایەوە لە قەرەداغ (بەشی دووەم)؟ لەم وێنەیەدا دەردەکەوێت کە ناوچەی قەرەداغ و شاخی سەگرمە زۆر ئالۆزە لە رووی جیۆلۆجێ وە سترەکچەرەوە Strucure وەکوو لە وێنەو هێڵکاری یەکەدا دیارە کە بەشێک کە انتیکلاینی سەرەکی شاخی سەگرمە بەسەختی تێک شکاوە کە گەلێک فۆلد و تەنشتە ثرەستی تێدایە وە انتیکلاینی لای چەپی پێشەوە گۆڕاوە ئەنتیکلاینی پاڵکەتوو لە لای راستی دواوە. ئەم جۆرە تێکشاندنە زەحمەتە نەوت بپارێزێت . وێنەکە بالێ سەرووی رۆژهەلاتی ئەنتیکلاینی سەگرمەیە لە سەر جادەی شارۆچکەی سەنگاو

 why oil has not found in the Qaradagh area and Sagrma mountain؟ The geology and structure of of Sagrma (or Sagerma) anticline and Qaradagh area are very complicated and deformed intensely as seen from the photo which shows that the anticline at left foreground is deformed to recumbent folds and possible lateral thrust (moved toward the observer) in right background. The anticline in the foreground is changed to recumbent to anticline at background. It is difficult for oil to be preserved in such deformed anticline. The area is northeastern limb of Sagrma Anticline along the road to Sangaw town.

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بۆچی نەوت نەدۆزرایەوە لە ناوچەی دووکان؟ تێکچونی پێکهاتووی کۆلۆش لە ناوچەی دووکان ٢کم لە خوارووی رۆژئاوای شارۆچەکەی دووکانی خواروو. تێکچونەکە بۆتە هۆی دروست کردنی سینکلاین( ژێرە چەماوە) و ئەنتیکلاین( سەرەچەماوە) و فۆلت(لێکترازان). ئەم جۆرە تێکچونە توندە نەوتی دروست بوو ناپارێزێت لە ژێر زەوی دا Why oil has not found in Dokan area? The intense deformation of Kolosh Formation at 2 kms to the southwest of Lower Dokan (Dukan) town. the deformation is in the form of synclines, anticlines and faults due to which the oil can not preserved in the reservoirs

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=986817188036850&set=a.435399279845313.125285.100001257351245&type=3&theater

 

 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRUCTURES AND FEATURES IN LIMESTONE OF PILA SPI FORMATION, ON SAGRMA ANTICLINE, QARADAGH AREA

 1- Vertical tension fracture (early stage of deformation or it can be called brittle deformation), 2- Horizontal shear fractures (late stage deformation) 3-En echelon fractures, 4-dextral strike slip fault (A–A), 5-Fault bend fold(f), 6-Mineralization (M), 6. Mylonite or microbreccia (c)

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بۆچی لێدانی داعش لەلایەن فرۆکەکانی ئەمریکا زۆر کاریگەرترە لە ناوچەی کوردا بەچاو ناوچەی عرب دا؟ هەموو سیاسی یەکان و ئەکادیمی و پسپۆرە سەربازەکانی عرب گلەیی دەکەن کە لێدانی ئەمریکا لە داعش لە ناوچە کوردیەکان زۆر کاری گەرترە وەکوو لە ناوچەکانی عرب کە بۆ موئامرەی دەگێڕنەوە هۆکەی ئەوەیە کە ناوچەی کوردا ئاسمانی ساف و بێ تۆزە بەلام ناوچەکانی عرب تۆزو خۆڵی زۆرە ( وەکوو لە وێنەکەدا دیارەکە) کە وا دەکات کە فرۆکەوانەکە شتەکانی سەرزەوی وەکوو سیارەو شەرکەری داعش بەباشی نەبێنێت بەتایبەتی کە داعش لە رۆزی تۆزاویدا هجوم دەکات

Why does USA air raids against ISIS (Da،esh) are more effective in Kurdish areas while not so in the Arab areas? All Arab politicians, academicians and military experts complain daily on medias that USA air raid are not effective in Arab areas against ISIS while those in Kurdish land are effective. The Arabs consider this difference is conspiracy against them. The reason is that the Arab lands are more dusty than Kurdish ones and due to the dusty sky (as seen from the photo), the pilots cannot see the ISIS logistics and fighters clearly. Especially the ISIS attacks during dusty days

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بۆچی نەوت نەدۆزرایەوە لە قەرەداغ؟ لەم وێنەیەدا دەردەکەوێت کە ناوچەی قەرەداغ و شاخی سەگرمە زۆر ئالۆزە لە رووی جیۆلۆجێ وە سترەکچەرەوە Strucure وەکوو لە وێنەو هێڵکاری یەکەدا دیارە کە کۆمپانیاکانی نەوت دەرکیان پێنەکردوە. شوێنەکە لای باخی شێخ محمد عبدول کریم ە لە سەر رێگای سنگاو

Why oil has not found in the Qaradagh area and Sagrma mountain؟ The geology and structure of area is very complicated and deformed intensely as seen from the photo and sketch.Unfortunately, the deformation has not observed by the oil companies. The area is southwestern limb of Sagrma Anticline along the road to Sangaw town

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A paleo-channel inside claystone of Upper Bakhtiary Formation filled with conglomerate of same formation. It is scored (eroded)by very heavy flood but when its energy had been decreased slightly, gravels (conglomerate ) was deposited in it. The photo is a road cut at 4km west of Qaradagh town جۆگەیەل(شیوەڵێک) لە ناو بەردی قوری پێکهاتووی بختیاری سەروو کە پڕ بووە لە بەردەچەوی هەمان پێکهاتوو. جۆگەکە دروست بووە بەهۆی داخورانی لافاوی زۆر بەهێزەوە بەڵام کاتێک کە لافاوەکە تۆزێک کەم بووە بەردەچەوی تیا نیشتووە

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گەران بەدوای نەوتدا گەڕان بە دوای نەوت دا لە ناوچەکانی وەکوو هەلەبجە ، پێنجوێن ، چوارتا ، ماوەت ، دوکان، رانیە ، قەلادزە، ‌قەندیل ،ناوچەی خۆشناو ، شقڵاوە، سۆران ، بەرزان ،ئامێدی وەکوو گەڕان بەدوای کەشتی نۆح دایە لە قطبی جنوبی SEARCH FOR OIL Search for oil in areas such as Halabja, Penjween , Chwarta, Mawat, Dokan, Ranyia, Qaladiza, Qandil , Khoshnaw, Shaqlawa, Soran, Barzan, Amedi, is like search for Nuh Ship in southern Pole

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A scientific trip with the students of 3rd year Geology to Asnawa iron ore, at 3km to the southeast of Penjween town. The estimated reserve of the ore is less than one million tons

گەشتی زانستی لە گەڵ خوێندکارانی پۆلی سێ یەمی جیۆلۆجی بۆ سەر خاوی ئاسنی ئاسناوا لە ٣ کم خوارووی ڕۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی پێنجوێن. بڕی ئاسنی ئابووری ناوچەکە لە یەک ملیۆن تەن کەمترە

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300m of conglomerate of Tanjero Formation (70 million years before present) at 5 km to the east of Chwarta Town, 35 km to the northeast of Sulaimani city. ٣٠٠مەتر لە کۆنگلۆمێرەتی پێکهاتووی تانجەرۆ لە (٧٠ ملیون ساڵ پێش ئێستا )لە ٥ کم ڕۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی چوارتا وە ٣٥ کم لە سەرووی رۆژ هەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی

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Box fold in the Balambo Formation on the Sherkozh anticline (mountain ) directly at the northwest boundary of the Sulaimani City. the cross section of the anticline and syncline resembles the digital wave form. Scale:The black spots are cows . چینەکانی زەوی لە شێوەی صندوق دا لە ناو پێکهاتووی بالامبۆدا لە شاخی شێر کوژ لە سنوری سەرووی رۆژئاوای شاری سلێمانی ئەنتیکلاین و سینکلاینەکە لە شەپۆلی دجیتاڵ دەچن. پێوانە: پەڵەرەشەکان بریتین لە مانگا.

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Mixture of all types of anticlines, synclines and faults in the Barsarine Formation at the east of Maw village, border of Sharazoor plain تێکەل بوونی هەموو جۆرەکانی انتیکلاین و سینکلاین و فٶڵت لە ناو پێکهاتووی بارسەرین لە ڕۆژهەڵاتی گوندی ماو لە سنووری دەشتی شارەزوور

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Three reverse faults (red arrows) in the Barsarine Formation, north of Said Sadiq town, 3km southwest of Parihero village, Galal Valley. سێ شکانی پێچەوانە لە ناو پێکهاتووی بارسەرین لە سەرووی شاروچکەی سیدصادق و ٣کم لە خوارووی رۆژئاوای گوندی پەریهێرۆ لە ناو دۆڵی گەڵاڵ

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Intense deformations of Barsarine Formation (150 million years before present), north of Said Sadiq town, 2km southwest of Parihero village, Galal Valley.

تێکچونی توندی پێکهاتووی بارسەرین (١٥٠ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئێستا) لە سەرووی شاروچکەی سیدصادق و ٢کم لە خوارووی رۆژئاوای گوندی پەریهێرۆ لە ناو دۆڵی گەڵاڵ

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سەر رێگای سیدصادق و پێنجوێن نزیک گوندی تەراتەوەن کە چەماوەکانی پێکهاتووی قوکلقولە پیشان دەدات بە شێوەی سینکلاین و ئەنتیکلاyن The area around both sides of the Said Sadiq-Penjween paved road near Tratawan village shows folding of Qulqula Formation(Synclines and anticlines)

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The Kani Khan valley (between Dokan town and Sulaimani city) in which many alluvial fans (a) are indicated and Daban mountain on which the formations (sa: Sarmord, k: Kometan, q: Qamchuqa, s: Shiranish) are shown دۆڵی کانی خان لە نێوان شارۆچکەی دوکان و شاری سلێمانی کە لە ناوی دا چەند ئەلوڤیەڵ فانێک دیاری کراوە لە گەڵ شاخی دابان کە لە سەری چاندپێکهاتوویەک پیشاندراوە وەکوو قەمچوقە، سەرمۆرد وە کۆمیتان وە شیرانیش

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Kalo mountain (anticline) in the Jafayaty valley, Dokan area, 50 km northwest of Sulaimani city on which the formations are indicated شاخی کالۆ یان انتیکلاینی کالۆ لە دۆڵی جافەیەتی لە ناوچەی دۆکان ٥٠کم لە سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی 

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An anticline (Komark anticline) which consists of Pila Spi Formation in the Barwari Bala, 20 kms to the north Amedi (Amadyia) town, Dohuk Governorate. The anticline is similar to a fish with detached tail and head. ئەنتیکلاینی کۆمارک لە ناوچەی بەرواری باڵا لە ٢٠ کم سەرووی شارۆچکەی ئامێدی. انتیکلینەکە لە شیوەی ماسی کلک و سەر بڕاودایە کە لە پێکهاتووی پیلاسپی پێک دێت

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A fault bend fold formed by a back thrust inside Shiranish Formation, 500 m to the northeast of Harmela village, 5km to the southeast of Chwarta (Chuarta) town. چەماوەیەک کە بەهۆی لێکترازانی نزمەوە دروست بووە لە ناو پێکهاتووی شیرانیش لە ٥٠٠ سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی گوندی هەرمێلە وە ٥کم لە خوارووی رۆژهەلاتی شارۆچکەی چوارتا

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Some of the Early and Late Cretaceous formations that are exposed on the southwestern limb of Azmir anticline at 3km to the north of Hawary Shar Puplic Garden, 5 kms north of Sulaimani City. A thrust fault can be seen too ‌هەندێک لە پێکهاتوەکانی سەرەتا و کۆتایی کریتێشەش کە دەرکەوتوون لە باڵی خوارووی رۆژئاوای انتیکلاینی ئەزمر(شاخی ئەزمر) لە ٣ کم لە سەرووی باخچەی هەواری شار لە ٥کم سەرووی شاری سلێمانی. لێکترازانێکی جۆری سرەست دەبینرێت هەروەها

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A field trip to Babo mountain between Haladin (at background) and Sargelu villages with some of my students. The the core of Surdash anticline (Haladin Valley) cab be seen in which Early Cretaceous Formations and Jurassic Rocks are exposed

گەشتی زانستی بۆ شاخی بابۆ لە نێوان دوو گوندی هەڵەدن ( کە دیارە) و سەرگەڵو لە گەڵ هەندێ هە خوێندکارەکانی پۆلی سێیەم. لە وێنەکەدا کرۆکی ئەنتیکلاینی سورداش دیارە کە فۆرمەیشنەکانی کریتێشەس و جۆراسیک دەرکەوتوە

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70مەتر لە پێکهاتووی عقرە ٨ کم لە خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی ماوەت کە لە بەردی کلس پێکهاتوە 70meters of Aqra Formation at 8 km to the south of Mawat town which consists of fossiliferous limestone

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Sharp and irregular erosional surface between Quaternary alluvial deposits and Kolosh Formation Inside Sulaimani city (Bakrajo district ). رویەکی دیار و نارێکی داخوران لە نێوان نیشتوی ئاوی قواتەرنەری و پێکهاتووی كۆلۆشلە ناو شاری سلێمانی گەرەکی بەکرەجۆ

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Two triangle sections of the corner (green lines) of the two calcite crystals as appear in the thin section under the polarized microscope.The black areas are bitumen. Lower Fars Formation, Mosul area دوو بڕگەی سێ گۆشەی کانزای کالسایت (کە بە خەتی سەوز دیاری کراوە) کە دەردەکەوێت لە ژێر سلایدا بەهۆی مایکرۆسکۆپی جەمسەرگری یەوە. پەڵەرەشەکان بریتیە لە قیر. دۆزراوەتەوە لە ناو پێکهاتووی فارسی خواروو لە موصل

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Sharp and irregular erosional surface ( the red line) below thick conglomerate layer (bed) in Gercus Formation along road cut inside Mirade Village between Sulaimani city and Darbandikhan town

 ڕوویەکی نارێک وو دیار کە بە خەتی سور دیاری کراوە لە خوارەوەی چینێکی کۆنگلۆمێرەت (بەر دە چەو) لە ناو پێکهاتووی جێرکەس کە دەرکەوتوە لە کەناری ڕێگا لە ناو گوندی میرەدێ لە نیوان شاری سلێمانی و شارۆچکەی دەربەندیخان

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100 meters of the Road cut along the road between Suaimani city and Qaywan village shows the structure of the layers of Sarmord Formation

١٠٠ مەتر لە تەنیشتی جادەی بەینی شاری سلێمانی و گوندی قەیوان کە تێکچونی چینەکانی پێکهاتوی سەرمۆرد پیشان دەدات

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Boxed fold in Sarmord Formation on Qaywan mountain, 25km north of Sulaimani city. It can be considered as two anticlines which are indicated by the red lines, the two sets of joints that are parallel to the anticline axes can be seen. The right anticline is overturned and reversely faulted

چەماوەی سندوقی لە ناو پێکهاتووی سەرمورد لە سەر شاخی قەیوان لە ٢٥ کم سەرووی شاری سلێمانی. چەماوەکە لە دوو انتیکلاین پێکهاتوە کە بە خەتی سور دیاری کراوە وە دوو جۆر لەخەتی شکاوی دیارە کە هاوتەریبن بە تەوەرەی دوو انتیکلاینەکە

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شاخی خەجەلەرزە لە ناوجەی قەیوان ١کم لە سەروی گوندی کۆلەرد کە ئەنتیکلین و سینکلاین ەکانی لە سەر دیاری کراوە لە گەل ناوی چینەبەردەکانی شاخەکە( پێکهاتوەکان) The Khaja Larza mountain in the Qaywan area, 30 kms north of Sulaimani city and 1km to the north of Kolard village .On the mountain the anticlines and synclines are shown in addition to the name of the formations

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My students on the Balambo Formation on the southeastern limb of Piramagrun anticline 30km northwest of Sulaimani city. Two small recumbent folds can be seen which are associated with scraping off two layers (A and B) by the layer C. خوێندکارەکانم لە سەر پێکهاتووی باڵامبۆ لە لە شاخی پیرەمەگروون (یان ئەنتیکلاینی پیرەمەگروون) . دوو چەماوەی بچووک دەبینرێت کە داماڵینی دووچین (ا و ب) پیشان دادات بە هۆی چێنی (س)  

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دۆڵی زێوی لە ناو کرۆکی انتیکلینی پیرەمەگروون کە پێکهاتووی سەرمورد (S) و قەمچۆغە(Q) دیارە لە گەڵ لێکترازانێکی جۆری گرابن. گوندی زێوێ لە ناوەراستی لای چەپ دیارە The Zewe valley inside the core of Piramagroon anticline in which the Sarmord(S) and Qamchuqa (Q) Formation are shown with a graben. the Zewe village is in the middle left of the photo. The axis of the anticline passes under my feet

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The new and old slides of Sinjar Formation on Kolosh Formation in the southwestern side of Piramagun (or Charmaga) valley, 35 km east of Sulaimani city, Dokan area هەڵخلیسکانی تازەو کۆنی بەردی پێکهاتووی سنجار لە سەر پێکهاتووی کۆلۆش لە بەری خەواروی رۆژئاوای دۆلی پیرەمەگرون( چەرمەگا) لە ٣٥ کم شاری سلێمانی لە ناوچەی دوکان

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The students of the third year geology are siting on the bioturbated stromatolitic limestone of Qamchuqa Formation (Early Cretaceous). At the background, the Kalo mountain (anticline) can be seen which consists of reefal (Qr) and lagoonal (Ql) limestone of the mentioned formation, the Sarmord Formation (S) is located in the core of the anticline. Dokan Area Jafayaty valley

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My Student on Qamchuqa Formation(Early Cretaceous) on Babo mountain where the Haladen village and core of the Surdash anticline can be see which now exsits as erosional valley. خوێندکارەکانم لە سەر پێکهاتووی قەمچوغە لە سەر شاخی بابۆ کە لێوەی گوندی هەلەدن و کرۆکی ئەنتیکلاینی سورداش دەبینرێت کە بووە بە دۆڵ بەهۆی داخورانەو

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An anticline and a reverse fault in Chia Gara (at the right) and Barsarin (at the left) Formations in Surdash valley 2k West of Haladen village, Dokan area.

 ئەنتیکلاین ێک و لێکترازانێکی پێجەوانە لە دوو پێکهاتووی چیاگارا( لە لای راست) و بارسارین (لەلای چەب) لە ٢کم خوارووی رۆژهەلاتی گوندی هەڵەدن ، لە ناوچەی دوکان

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لەگەڵ خوێندکارانی پۆلی سێیەمی جیۆلۆجی لە شاخی بابۆ لە نێوان دوو گوندی سەرگەلۆ وە هەڵەدن لە کاتی گەشتی زانستی. لە پشتەوە گوندی سەرگەڵۆ دیارەWith my students (3rd stage) on the Babo mountain between Sergelu and Haladen villages during field trip, the former village can be seen at the background

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Two rock bodies in the shape of lens (as shown in the upper diagram), they consist of detrital limestone (grainstone) and exist in Naokelekan Formation, 10 kms to the north of Said Sadiq town 1km to the northeast of Kaolos village. دوو بەردی شێوە هاوێنە ( وەکوو لە شێوەی سەرەوەی وێنەکە پیشاندراوە) کە لە ناو پێکهاتووی ناوکلیکان دا هەیە لە ١٠کم سەرووی شارۆچکەی سید صادق ١کم لە سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی گوندی کەولۆس

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Two reverse fault on the southeastern limb of Pers Mountain (anticline), 1km north of Dinarta town, Dohuk Governorate دوو لیکترازانی پێچەوانە لە شاخی پێرس ١کم لا سەروی شارۆچکەی دینارتا لە پارێزگای دهۆک

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جوانترین سترۆماتۆلایت کە بینیومە لە ناو پێکهاتووی هادینە (هەدەینە) دا یە ( ٧٥ ملیون ساڵ پێش ئێستا) ناوچەی بەرواری باڵا ٢٠ کم سەرووی شارۆچکەی ئامێدی اجمل ستروماتولایت شاهدته موجود فی تکوین هادینە ( ٧٥ ملیون سنە قبل الان) منطقة برواری بالا ٢٠ کم شمال مدینة العمادیة The most nice and perfect stromatolite I have seen in my life which exists in Hadiena Formation (75 million years before present), area of Barwary Bala, 20 kms north of Amedy town 100 kms northest of Dohuk city. To the the photo open the link: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=868525436532693&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1471617403.&type=3&theater

 

 

چەمانەوی چینەکانی پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان بە شێوەی انتیکلین و سینکلاین لە شارۆچکەی سیدصادق Intense deformation of the Kometan Formation in form of anticline and syncline , it can be seen that the thickness of bedding of the left limb is half of the right one due to the fact that the stress is nearly vertical on the bedding plane on the former limb while it oblique on the latter limb. inside Said Sadiq town 40 kms east of Sulaimani city

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گردێکی کۆن کە لە بێکاتووی جێرکس پێکهاتووە لە نیوان دوو دۆڵ دابووە بەڵام لە دوایدا دوو دۆڵەکە پربوون لە نشتوو . لە سەر جادەی نیوان دوو شارۆچکەی زاوێتە و ئامێدی لە ١٢ کم رۆژهەڵاتی شاری دهۆک A paleo-hill (consists of Gercus Formation) between two valleys which later filled with alluvial sediments , on the road between Zaweta and Amedi ( Amadyia) towns about 12 kms east of Dohuk town. This is how paloeo-geography or paleogeomorphology can be constructed

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شارۆچکەی ئامێدی ( قەڵای ئامێدی) لەگەڵ خوێندکارەکانم دا کە لە شاخی سەری ئامێدی یەوە وێنە گیراوە The town of Amedi (Castel of Amedi) with my students, the photo is taken from the peak of Sary Amedi mountain

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Two thin beds of chert inside limestone of the Kometan Formation inside cemetery of Said Sadiq town. An association of box and overturned anticlines with two small thrust faults (red arrow) can be seen with Intense deformation in the areas of A and B where axes of a syncline and an anticline compressed the limestone material and moved into the core of box fold.

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چەمانەوەی چینەکانی پێکهاتووی باڵامبۆ بە شێوەی ئەنتیکلین و سینکلاین لە ٣ کم سەرووی ڕۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی سید صادق لە سنوری سەروی شوێنی فرێدانی زبڵی شارەکە An overturned anticline and a syncline inside Balambo Formation at 3 km to the northeast of Said Sadiq town, directly to the north of damp site of the waste of the town

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Several thrust faults in Tanjero formation along road cut inside southeastern part of Sulaimani city, the photo look southwest جەند لێکچرانی خزان لە ناو جینەکانی پێکهاتووی تانجەرۆ لە ناو بەشی رۆزهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی. وێنەکە برەو خواروی رۆژئاوا گیراوە

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چینەکانی زەوی لە چەمی رێزان لەگەڵ پیشاندانی شوێنی قەڵایەکی زۆر کۆن بەسەر گردێکەوە کە بە پیتی (ق) دیاری کراوە The formations in the Chami Rezan gorge with the location of very old castel on the hill to the rightwhich indicated by (ق) letter . S:Sinjar Formation, G: Gercus Formation. P: Pila Spi Formation.

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شاخی پیرەماگرون و دەربەندی تابین کە لە شاخی بازەگیران ەوە وێنە گیراوە Northwestern plunge of Pira Magrun anticline (Mountain) and Tabeen Gorge which taken from Bagzgiran mountain the photo looks northeast

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A fossil of ammonite in the top of Kometan Formation (76 million years before present) in Dokan area, the right corner is its live form.

بە بەردبووی گیانداری ئامۆنات لە بەشی سەرەوەی پێکهاتووی کۆمیتان (٧٦ ملیۆن ساڵ پێش ئێستا) لە ناوچەی دوکان ، وێنەی بەشی لای راستی سەرەوە گیان دارەکەیە لە ژیان دا

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رۆژهەڵاتی شاخی سنجار لە نزیک گۆندی گۆلات ساڵی ١٩٨٠ لەکاتی راهێنانی جیۆلۆجی
The eastern part of Sinjar mountain near the Golat village during field geological training, 1980

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شارۆچکەی سنجار١٩٨٠
Sinjar town 1980

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تعلم من شجرة البلوط کیف تتشبث بالارض لە درەختی بەڕو فێربە چۆن بە خاکەوە پەیوەست دەبیت From Oak tree learn how to attach to your land The tree is inside the Ala Siaw village 10 km to the northeast of Sulaimani city

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Paleocene Kolosh Formation in 1 km north of Kalka Smaq village, Dokan area shows alternation of white and dark color marl and sandstone

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Gercus Formation on the peak of the Glazarda (Baranan) mountain near the communication tower at head of Dara Rash valley. It consists of alternation of red claystone and greyish blue marl. The slope is suffered from creep as can be seen from the deformation of layers above the green dashed line

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Asymmetrical anticline in Qamchuqa Formation on the northeastern limb of Qarasard anticline (mountain), 3 km to the northeast of Dokan town

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A nice anticline in Sarmord Formation inside Yakhyian valley 15 kms northwest of Sulaimani City, Piramagroon mountain (see the GPS location on the photo)

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A syncline and an anticline inside Qulqula Radiolarian Formation between Haji Mamand and Piraziz villages at 4 km to the northwest of Dostadra village , Sharbazer areaسینکلاین و ئەنتیکلین لە ناو پێکهاتووی قولقولە دا لە ناوچەی شارباژێر لەنێوان دوو گوندی حاجی مامەند و پیرازیز دا لە ٤ کم سەروی رۆژئاوای گوندی دۆستەدرە

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Sulaimani city as seen from the roof of my home

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The Ranyia Bridge (across Ranyia Gorge) on the Litte Zab River at 5 km to the east of Ranyia town. پردی رانیە لە سەر دەربەندی رانیە لە ٥کم لە رۆژهەڵاتی شاری رانیەوە

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Deformation (as synclines, anticlines and a possible  reverse fault) in Balambo Formation at 3 km to the northwest of Said Sadiq town. پێچاو پێچ بوونی چینەکانی پێکهاتووی باڵامبۆ لە ٣ کم لە سەرووی رۆژئاوای شارۆچکەی سید صادق

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Deformation in the bedding of the Kometan Formation inside the western corner of cemetery of Said Sad Town تێکچونی چینەکانی پیکهاتووی کۆمیتان لە ناو سوچی رۆژئاوای قەبرستانی شارۆچکەی سەید صادق

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The research work at field on the beach of Ganau Lake, southeast of Ranyia town

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 ناوچەی شەمێران لە سەروی رۆژهەڵاتی دەربەندیخان لەگەڵ مامۆستا بەهرۆز کە پێکهاتووی سینجارو کۆڵۆش دیارن

North east of Derbandikan Town where Kolosh and Sinjar Formations can be seen at background

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 A lens of conglomerate inside green marl of Lower part of Kolosh Formation, Northeast of Darbandikan town , 2k east of Shameran village

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Sulaimani city at 10, April, 2014, مدينة السليمانية الان شاری سلێمانی لە کاتی ئێستادا

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My village (Dustadara)  or Dusedara , Sharbazher areaقريتي اسمها دوسيدرة گوندەکەم ناوی (دووسێ دەرە) یە

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River deltas on Mars (left photo) are similar to those on the earth دەلتای رووبارەکان لە سەر مەریخ ( وێنەی چەپ) و زەوی هەمان شێوەیان هەیە

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Two small normal faults in laminated limestone of the Balambo Formation, on the Kura Kazhaw mountain, 3km to the north of Barzinja town, near Haji Mamand village

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Deformations (folding, tectonic thickening and thinning) in Qulqula Radiolarian Formation, 500m west of Zargat village, 25 Km north west of Halabja town

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Reverse fault in Balambo Formation, on the eastern side of Glazarda valley near Darbaru village, southwestern side of Piramagroon mountain (Anticline) 30 km to the northwest of Sulaimani City   https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=708054032579835&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Badland in the conglomerate of Upper Bakhtiari Formation at south of Chamchamal town near Kor Mor oil field. The conglomerate was deposited in past in braided river as longitudinal or traversal bars, therefore its erosion (now) is more or less reflecting the bars or patchy deposition.

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Folding and faulting in Qulqula Radiolarian Formation around Tuta Ghaj village , 7 kms to the northeast of Said Sadiq town, in northern part of the Sharazoor plain

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The hand joints are similar to week zones (basins) of earth crust where folding, faulting and mountains building are occur in these weak zones (joints). the photo below shows that many folds (synclines and anticlines) are formed when the fingers are straighten (a) which means contraction of skin while when they are bended the folds are nearly disappear (b). This type of features in skin of hand is very similar to thin skinned tectonics which can be seen in Kurdistan in formations like Kometan and Sarmord or Sargelu Formations. These folds or mountain are formed by collidingof the Iranian and Arabian plates (the two arrow in (a).

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Folds in the South eastern limb of Piramagroon anticline, Yakhyian valley, 15 kms to the north west of Sulaimani city, 3km to the north of Qamar Taly village

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Syncline breakthrough fault or thrust (red line) in the Tanjero Formation inside Sulaimani city, on the 60 meter road, 200 m to the east of Kurdistan Fuel Station. The same bed is given same number on both the photo and the diagram.

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شوێنی ئەو چینە بەردە ببینە کە تەمەنی ١٠٠ ملیۆن ساڵە لە ٢کم سەروی رٶژهەڵاتی سەرچنار نزیک گۆندی کارمەندانی زانكۆ See the bed (layer) that has the age of 100 million years before present which called Dokan Formation. The red line is boundary between Gulneri and Dokan formations,the location is southeastern plunge of Piramagroon anticline , 2kms to the northeast of Sarchinar Spring

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Gulneri, Dokan, Balambo and Komeatn Formations as can be seen inside and around synclines and anticlines on south eastern Plunge of Piramagroon mountain (Harmetool anticline), Nadir valley, at 2k northwest of Sutka village, 10k northwest of Sulaimani City. The dark areas are Gulneri Fn which is soft and consists of matrl and marly limestone. The flock of sheeps and goats can be see on the syncline ( This photo is part of the forth year student project of Kazhan Aram Mustafa and Dashnene Yasen Ahmad

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Northern part of Sulaimani 16-12-2013 in a photo that is taken from peak of Goizha mountain

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Northeastern part of Sulaimani City during 2004 and 2013 the letters A,B, C and D show same locations in the two photos

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Anticlines and synclines in Balambo Formation in the core of Goizha anticline, at two kms north of Sulaimani City, on the paved road between The Azmir tunnel and Kurdsat Tv center.

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The most important branch of geology is sequence stratigraphy by which one can combine several formations and lithologies (facies) in one basin or during one tectonic phase with their time relation and sea level change. Student can learn too much about this branch of geology by looking to sediments of dam lake. For learning past sequence stratigraphy , the sediments during filling and emptying of recent dams are very helpful such as Darbandikhan dam (or lake) as seen in the photo.    https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=670876476297591&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Sigmoidal tension gashes (fractures) which have generally S- or Z-shaped, depending on the sense of shear along the zone. This type of extensional fracture is usually mineral-filled and form en echelon arrays along the shear zone. they are also called En Echelon tension fractures(gashes) and they indicate the direction of tension and Sigma one, two and three. Sargelo Formation, Said Sadiq area, 60km to the east of Sulaimani city

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Box syncline in the Barsarine Formation, 1k to the north of Kaolos village, Said Sadiq area, 70 km east of Sulaimani city.

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منداڵەکانم لە شاخ لە ساڵی ٢٠٠٢ دا لە کاتی ئیشی جیۆڵۆجی دا کە فێری مار گرتنیان دەکەم My children  in 2002 during fieldworks,  learning him how to catch snakes

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Two circular and conical depression on the top of the Balambo mountain, the large one has the diameter of about 35 m. These depressions are unique in Kurdistan and their origins of are not known but they may be meteorite impact crater. The efforts are continuous for knowing their origin.The right and left photos show a part of the large depression and google earth image respectively دوو چاڵی بازنەی وە قوچەکی لە سەر شاجی باڵەمبۆ کە گورەکەیان تیرەکەی نزیکەی ٣٥مەترە ئەم دوو چاڵە لە کوردستان بێ نموونەن وە هۆی دروستبوونیان نەزانراون بەڵام لەوانەیە بەهۆی نیازکەوە درووست بووبن وە هەوڵ بەردەوامە بۆ زانینی هۆی دروست بوونیان، وێنەی لای راست چاڵە گەورەکە پیشان دەدات

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Fault and folds in Balambo Formation 4 kms east of Barzinja town, near Basak Village , by the faults, the left syncline is transferred to the under the anticline. شکاوی و چەمانەوە لە چینەبەردەکانی پێکهاتووی بالامبۆ لە ٤ کم لە ڕۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی بەرزنجە وە نزیک گووندی باساک

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Folding in Balambo Formation on the southeastern limb of Balambo anticline, Sirwan valley, 12 kms southwest of Halabja town near Kawta village. The photo looks northwest چەماوەکان لە ناو چینە بەردەکانی پێکهاتوی باڵامبۆ لە لاپاڵی خوارووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاخی باڵامبۆ ١٢ کم لە خواروی رۆژهەڵاتی شارۆچکەی هەڵەبجە لە نزیک گووندی کەوتە لە دۆڵی سیروان

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polished slab of Green marble (calcsilicate Metamorphic rock) of Penjween area ( near Darokan village,100km northeast of Sulaimani city. It shows plastic deformations which appear as different type of folds folds . پارچە مەرمەری سەوزی ناوچەی پێنجوێن نزیک گوندی دارۆخان ١٠٠ کم لە سەرووی رۆژهەڵاتی شاری شلێمانی. کە شیواندنی پلاستیکی پیشان دەدات لە شێوەی چەمانەوەی جیاواز دا

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 دیوی سەرووی رۆژ هەڵاتی شاخی ‌قرەسەرد ، ٣کم لە رۆژئاوای شارۆچکەی دووکان، پارێزگای سلێمانی

Northeastern side of Qarasrd mountain at 3km west of Dokan Town, Sulaimanyia Governorate

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Differential erosion as a shape of mushroom in Dokan Conglomerate ( Upper Bakhtiary Formation), Dokan area northeast limb of Qarasard Anticline

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Stromatolite (laminated rock formed by algae) in Barsarine Formation at 10 kms east of Barzinja town, about 40 kms east of Sulaimani city. This stromatolites belong to columnar type (A) which have been grown on a rip up clasts (pebble of of intraformational origin) (B). The age of these biogenic rocks are 150 million year before present. بەردی سترۆماتۆلاتیت کە لە ناو پێکهاتووی بارسەرین دۆزراوەتەوە کە دەکەوێتە ١٠ کم لە رۆزهەڵاتی شارۆجکەی بەرزنجە وە نزیکەی ٤٠ کم لە رۆزهەڵاتی شاری سلێمانی. ئەم بەردانە درووست بوون بە هۆی گیانداری قەوزەوە کە تەمەنی ١٥٠ ملیون ساڵە لە پێش ێێستا

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Sirwan valley 25 kms south of Halabja Town, the Sirwan river (upstream of Dilla River) can be seen as white ribbon, the valley flooded annually by water of the Darbandikhan dam, now the valley is empty and the green grass is the area which exposed after draining of water for irrigation. دۆڵی سیروان ٢٥کم لە خواروی شاری هەلەبجە پاش خاڵی بوونەوەی لە ئاوی بانداوی دەربەندیخان . گیا سەوزەکە ئە شێوێنانەیە کە ئاوی بەنداوەکەی لێ خاڵی بۆتەوە

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Chevron folding in Balambo Formation in Sirwan Valley, 25 km Southeast of Halabja Town

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Azmir mountain, 4 km north of Sulaimani city, شاخی ئەزمر ٤ کم لە باکوری شاری سلێمانی

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Sirwan valley، flooded by water of the Darbandikan Dam (upstream of Dilla River) photographed from top of the Balambo mountain دۆڵی سیروان کە پڕبووە بەئاوی بەنداوی دەربەندیخان کە لەشاخی باڵامبۆوە وێنە گیراوە

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On the Peak of the Bulfat mountain (Head of the Shylan valley) where the Halso village can be seen at backgroundسەری , the area consisted of Walash Naoperdan Series which is Metamorphosedشاخی بوڵفەت (کۆتایی دۆلی شیلان) کە لەوێوه گوندی هەڵشٶ دیارو لە ناوچەی قەڵادزە

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A thrust fault in limestone beds of Aqra Formation at 2k northeast of Kunamasi village, 25km west of Chwarta town

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Imbricated  boulders in the bed deposits of Little Zab River 10 km to the northwest of Mawat Town, Sulaimani Governorate. They indicate that river flow toward Left (west)

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Duhok dam بەنداوی دهۆک

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=598956086822964&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Sirwan Valley, 15 Km south of Halabja town, Sulaimani Governorate. the green area is the water of Darbandikhan dam. The water is green due to containing of green algae since it is stagnant.

دۆلی سیروان لە ١٥کم خواروی شارۆجکەی هەلە بجە ، پارێزگای سلێمانی. هۆی سەوزی ئاوەکە بریتی یە لە بونی قەوزەی سەوز لە ناویداا جونکە ئاوەکە وەستاوە

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=597831943602045&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Taratawan village on the road between Sulaimani city and Penjween town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=596487370403169&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

 

Fault propagation fold (right) and normal fault (left). At the lower part the fold is graphically illustrated. The structure is found in Kolosh Formation 2km southwest of Tabeen Spring, Near Surdash town, Dokan Area

  https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=590803487638224&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

An anticline inside Kometan Formation directly to the north of Said Sadiq town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=590827790969127&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Rose like syncline inside Kometan Formation, 2km west of Azmir Tunnel, 8 km north of Sulaimani City

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=590122747706298&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

            Thrust fault inside Upper Part of Kolosh Formation inside Qopi Qaradagh valley, between Sangaw and Qaradagh towns on the paved road

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=587388731313033&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

Two anticlines A and B which are separated by a reverse fault. the fault cut the syncline (complementary syncline) between the two anticlines. The structure exist inside Shiranish Formation 4kms of Safra village and 10kms to southeast of Mawat Town. The Core of the anticline B is highly deformed

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=585942348124338&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Deformation in lower part Balambo Formation near Qywan village 30km northeast of Sulaimanyia city. See the part between A and B how stretched by adjacent two layers

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=585550488163524&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

An anticline inside Lower part of Balambo Formation to the north of Barzinja town, northeast of Sulaimaniya Governorate

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=583467815038458&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Recumbent folds in thew Kometan Formation in the 10km southeast of Halabja town and 4km east of Dolamar village

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=582235748494998&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

Erosion modified block of Qamchuqa Formation in the form of human head. it is located between Sedar and Sharsten villages, NW of Dokan town. I called it " a sleeping head, please be silent" شيوةي سةري مرؤفيك كة بةهوي داخوراتةوة دروست بوة لة بةردي بيكهاتووي َ قةمجوغة لة نيوان كوندي سيدةر و شارستين لة سةرووي رؤزهةلاتي سارؤجكةي دووكان . من ئةم سةرةم ناوناوة ( سةري نووستوو تكاية بي دةنك بن

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=581278035257436&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

 

Sulaimani 4-5-2013 Goizha village, سليماني كوندي كويزة لة 4-5-2013

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=578329865552253&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Angular unconformity between Qulqula Radiolarian Formation and blocks of Avroman Formation. The uncomformity formed by sliding (During Pleistocene) of Large blocks of Avroman Formation on Qulqula Radiolarian Formation (as soft or incompetent rocks) in Zalim valley, northeast of Ahmad Awa village, 15 kms northeast of Halabja town. These blocks are mapped previously as Qulqula Conglomerate Formation

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=577207775664462&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Folding in the Lower Part of Qulqula Radiolarian Formation (140 million years before present) 3km northwest of Kaolos village on the paved road between Penjween town and Sulaimani city

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=575376685847571&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Ripple marks on surface of sandstone bed of Lower Fars Formation (13 million years before present) 2km west of Karezy Dalo village, 10kms southeast of Sangaw town  https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=572979096087330&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Differential erosion in Qamchuqa Formation in Byia Gorge, Derash area South of Amadyia town (Dohuk Governorate). The erosion shaped feature is looks like a head and chest of girl and villagers are calling it Kija Kafr or (non-muslim Girl) which is about 10m high and 3m wide. شيوةي كجيك كة دروست بووة بة هوي داخوراني ناجون يةك لة ناو بةردي بيكهاتووي قةمجوغه لة كةلي بيه و ناوجةي ديرةش لة خوارووي شارؤجكةي ئاميدي كة خةلكي ناوجةكة بي دةلين كجة كافر كة 10م بةرزةو 3 م بانة

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=571114416273798&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

Overturned syncline in Kometan Formation (80 m.y before present) near the top of Askawta Rash mountain, 7 km northeast of Arbat town, 40km east of Sulaimani city

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=568113099907263&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Catching a snake in the field, without hurting it, will be great enjoymentگرتنی مار بەبێ ئازاردانی ئیشێکی خۆشە  لە شاخ

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=564014670317106&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater  

 

 

درك بة بؤ خؤباراستن و كول بة بؤ خؤشةويستي كن اشواكا للحماية و ورودا للمحبة

Be flowers for love and be spines for defensse

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=563024163749490&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Reverse fault in Shiranish Formation (in this place consists of bituminous marlstone) inside Alasiwa village, 20km northeast of Sulaimani city.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=561998257185414&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Highly deformed syncline in Sarmord Formation at 2km east of Choghmagh village 30km northwest of Sulaimani city

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=561221803929726&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Faulted anticlines and synclines in Sarmord Formation on the Peak of Qaywan Mountain on the paved road to Kona Masi village, 25 km to the north of Sulaimani city

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=559144334137473&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

A syncline inside Sarmord Formation at north border of Qaywan village, 30km north of Sulaimani city

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=559017850816788&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Bitumen seepage in Shiranish Formation along normal fault inside Alasiaw village 10 km southeast of Chuarta town, 20 km northeast of Sulaimaniya city. for detail of the fault see kurdistan geology web site or search for "Graben in Mawat-Chuarta area" in Google

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=556794264372480&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

            Folds in Balambo Formation in Sirwan Valley 2km east of Sazan village, 10km southeast of Halabja Town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=555682034483703&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

ره نكي سروشتي سەرووي شاروجكەي عربت کە لە  شاخي وشكە شيو وەوە كيراوە

Natural colours of nothern area of Arbat town , the photo looks south and taken from Wshkashyu mountain

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=554834584568448&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Chevron folds in Balambo Formation inside the core of Azmir Anticline (mountain) at 1km north of Khamza village at 15 km northeast of Sulaimani City

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=554497851268788&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

An anticline in Balambo Formation (Early Cretaceous) inside the Little Qaywan village (Qaywani Bichuwk) 30 kms to north of Sulaumani City

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=552512161467357&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

a largeThrust fault with several small ones in Kometan Formation on Azmir mountain (the photo shows lateral view along a valley side and the arrow is toward southwest)

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=551611841557389&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Trace fossil (burrow of gastropods of pelecypods) inside lower part of Kolosh formation near boundary with Tanjero Formation 3kms to the west of Dokan town near Qalat village

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=550202208365019&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Unknown fossil in limestone of Sinjar Formation (Lower Eocene, 53m.y before present) in Darbandikan area. who knows its genus or species, please write it as comment

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=544767522241821&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Remnant of Quaternary Alluvial fan sediments forming a bench (A) on the southwestern side of Zimnako Mountain which looking over Darbandikhan town (C). The alluvial fan is rested on Lower Fars Formation (B) unconformably and about 20m thick.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=538090659576174&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Folds in Qulqula Radiolarian Formation at 2km northeast of Ahmad Awa village, Halabja Area

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=536770043041569&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Millipede (in Kurdish it called: "Hazar Pe" ) animal which we found it on the Avroman (Hawraman) mountain , 2km to the east of Zargat village. This millipede is seen by me for first time because i never seen such long millipede before and has too many feet. It is possible that it is new genus in the world which is not recorded before. It can move forward and backward as if it has two heads

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=523403591044881&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

The sandstone of Lower Fars (Middle Miocene) is used for shaping grave stone in cemetery of Tapa Garus village near Zarda Likaw village, 10km southeast of Sangaw town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=521538821231358&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472887484.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Chevron folds in the head of Galal valley, 5km southeast of Barzinja town, the photo looks northwest

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=518846254833948&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

An anticline and a syncline are located near your home about 2km to the northeast of Sulaimania city on that part of Goizha Mountain (anticline) that looks over the city (about 1km to the east of German Village). The fold is located in the upper part of Balambo Formation.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=515247598527147&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Folding in the chert beds (layers) of Qulqula Formation 5 km northeast of Chwarta town near Ashi Baram village. Some of the folds are fault propagation fold. The siliceous shale is deformed differently which shows thrusting and resembles a snake tries to eat another one (see the upper right part which outlined by pen).

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=507803635938210&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Scarp of fault surface in the upper part of Pila Spi Formation (chalky and dolomitic limestone of Middle Eocene) at 4 km to the north of Darbandikhan town,

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=507200175998556&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Bedded detrital limestone  in Qulqula Formation near Norabab village at 12km northeast of Chwarta town. When the hard rocks are intensively deformed, they try to accumulate (make a globular body) this issue is well discussed in a paper in my wed site. The paper is under the title of: Origin of Ball and Pillow-like Structures in Tanjero and Kolosh Formations in Sulaimaniya area, NE-Iraq

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=501913296527244&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Fossils near of the contact between Tanjero and Kolosh Formations. they collected near Kalka Smaq Village west of Dokan town. These fossils were living in the area before (60 million years before present) when it was covered by sea.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=500520629999844&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Kometan and Qamchuqa fns near Bingird town, Dokan area, 4kms to the northeast of Sharsten village, with new road to better study of these units in the New Year

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=495518763833364&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

The deformation of this bed of a chert in Kometan Formation, reflects the progressive deformation of whole Zagros Orogenic belt. The stage (1) is asymmetrical folding, the stage (2) is the first stage of thrusting and the stage (3) is late stage of the thrusting. In the bed, if the deformation was not stopped, the segments of the bed in the three stages would been imbricated on each other in the position of stage (3) in similar way that some parts of Zagros exist today in the Thrust Zone where more than four thrust sheets were stacked on each other. The location of the photo is 3 km to the north of Greza village, west of Arbat town.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=494744293910811&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

This photo is a part of a paper published in Journal of Facies (Spinger Verlag) in Germany. The paper is very important for geologists to see how sediments and rocks can be formed from green algae

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=492948887423685&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Ripple marks (with trace fossils) on the base of a thick and coarse sandstone of Tanjero Formation at 5 Kms to the north of Sulaimani city, near Kurdsat TV cente

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=491523254232915&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Materials of a rock-slide (called Qarachatan Rockslide) 25km to the west of Sulaimani city at the foot of Piramagroon Mountain, the material (blocks of Qamchuqa Formation ) moved from the top of the mountain for about three km and rested on the plain near Qarachatan village the weight of the slide debris is about 200 million tones and formed a hill about 50 high. The photo is taken from the distance of 10km.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=487002384685002&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Thrusting of Qamchuqa Formation over Kometan and Shiranish Formations at the southeast of Hawara Barza village, southeast of Bingird Town, Dokan area. The Structure can be called either syncline imbrication or thrusting, but it is thrusting as below Qamchuqa Formation only thin part (or blocks) of the Kometan Formation is remained (See the thickness of the latter formation on the Southern and norther limbs. The photo looks souheast

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=480465885338652&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

A normal fault ( may be reverse ) at the peak of Kosrat mountain near Kani Span village Khidran Area

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=472405422811365&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater


 

 

Comparison between Sarchinar during 1955 and now, the letters a,b and c indicate same locations in both photos

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=464336943618213&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

 Plant debris (fragments of steam and cuticles which are brown in colour) in coarse sandstone of Tanjero Formation at the north of Sulaimani City, 300m to the west of Kurdsat Satellite Center. These plant debris are evidence of occurrence of terrestrial land during Maastrichtian (before 70 million years). This land was ten kilometers wide and thousands long during this age.The fragments were transported from the source area to the basin by rivers during hurricane (very large storm).

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=463392333712674&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

A fault  bent  Fold (or thrust) in the Qamchuqa Formation 1km to the south of Kuera Kani Village, in the Sedar Valley 6km to the northeast of Dokan town.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=460137790704795&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

A millstone (Bardash) on the Kato Mountain, 5km east of Chwarta town and 30km northeast of Sulaimani city. It is left (abandoned) due to fracturing during shaping. It is made from the conglomerate of the Lower part of Tanjero Formation (Kato conglomerate) (70 million years before present). All the millstones and hand mills (dastar)of the Sulaimani Governorate were made in this area and from this conglomerate. The conglomerate is about 300m thick and in some places reaches 500m. This conglomerate id harder and more durable than concrete. when one visits the mountain he can see may of these uncompleted millstone due to breaking during excavation and shaping.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=458034114248496&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Erosional surface with several small channels at the base of pebbly sandstone in the Lower Bakhtiary Formation (Upper Miocene-Pliocene), inside Zarda Liqa village, Between Darbandikhan and Sangaw towns.The surface of the channels are grooved by moving pebble on soft claystone ( see upper photo). The paleo-current direction is nearly toward a viewer.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=457165237668717&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Liesegang rings, it is a type of diagenetic structure which exist in the Balambo, Sargelo, Naokelekan Formations. It is formed by several phase of penetration of water into the rock from all sides during uplift. Each ring represent the location where the water penetrated (leaked ) water was stopped. where it had been stopped. minerals and different substances are deposited as a concentric rings with dark colour.In the photo the fracture (white) was opened from the lower during certain time and more water is penetrated faster as compared to other part, so the rings show closeness from ( or diverted to) the center.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=455707894481118&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

West of Zargat village (East of Biyara town, Hawraman area) shows a intensely deformed beds of siliceous limestone of Qulqula Formation. This type of deformation is occurred in many synclines, as they confined under the earth than anticlines. this type of deformation can be seen directly to the west of Said Sadiq town in Synclines of Kometan Formation (see kurdistan geology in google for detail). The red line shows the degree of deformation and shortening of the lowest bed.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=455287741189800&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Many Gastropods species and one coral, found at contact between Kolosh and Tanjero Fns, about 8km to the northwest of Dokan town directly to west of Qalat village. The age of these fossils is 65 million years

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=452643354787572&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

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Erosion modified block of Qamchuqa Formation between Sedar and Sharsten villages, NW of Dokan town. I called it " it is a sleeping head,please be silent"

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=451608794891028&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

The yearly filling and emptying of the Darbandikhan (see the photo) and Dokan lake are similar to long term see level fall and rise that occurred in past and generated depositional sequence (sequence stratigraphy). if our students study the sediments and features that associated with the two lake will learn accurately the sequence stratigraphy which, with out this science, the ancient basin, sedimentology and tectonics can not realized easily.This photo is the Siwan valley during Autumn ( part of Darbandikhan lake ) which emptied and stream incision is occurred and the sediments of HSTand TST covered by newly grown green grass.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=450019095049998&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Sulaimani City during Sunday, August 12, 2012 at 12:40am UTC+03

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=447818298603411&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Stromatolite (microbialite) is laminated carbonate rocks which is formed by bacterias (algae, fungi and microbes) in an environment in which graving organism (gastropod and pelecypods) can not live.The sample belongs to Barsarin Formation at northeast of Barzinja Town.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=445564312162143&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Sharp erosional surface (a gap in deposition) between Sinjar and Gerus Formations in Sartak Bamo Valley 20kms east of Darbandikhan town. In this area Gercus fn consists mainly of conglomerate.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=443702389015002&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Kura Kazhaw mountain (at the back) and Basak village ( in the middle of the valley) and several synclines and anticlines in Balambo Formation at the foreground. The area is located at5km to the northeast of Barzinja Town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=443702389015002&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Nummulite foraminefras in Sinjar Formation( Eocene, 45my) in Sartak Bamo valley, the specimen is differentially weathered so the chambers are visible clearly. 8X, Normal light

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=442413889143852&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Sharp erosional surface (a gap in deposition) between Sinjar and Gerus Formations in Sartak Bamo Valley 20kms east of Darbandikhan town. In this area Gercus fn consists mainly of conglomerate.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=442407122477862&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Back thrust in Qamchuqa Formation at 3kms to the north of Dokan dam

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=441467692571805&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

 

Green algae changes to rock (limestone) in Ranyia area: 1- green algae, 3- green algae after death, 3- after death it changes to fragments and replaced by calcite, 4- the fragments changes to rock( lithified), 5- the rock is studied by us in the field and lab.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=440171009368140&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

An overturned anticline and syncline in Kometan Formation at south of Qizlar Village Chaqchaq valley, 20km northwest of Sulaimani city.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=440072036044704&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Thrust fault ( or reverse fault) in Chaqchaq valley, 15 kms to northwest of Sulaimani city. Photo shows a syncline in which Kometan Formation (black lines) is thrusted over Shiranish Formation (red lines).

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=439698379415403&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Thrust fault (back thrust) in Sinjar Formation in the Sartak Valley, 20k southeast of Darbandikan town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=438564486195459&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

This photo is taken near Chaweg Spring at southeast of Halabia town, shows a type of boudinages that is formed by plastic and brittle deformation. It means it formed by flowage and fracturing

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=437571639628077&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Faut bend fold in the Kometan FOrmation near Said Sadiq town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=436909089694332&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Awa Spi pring (White Water spring)

 

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=436732623045312&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

It is in the Tabeen Gorge about 1km upstream of the Tabeen spring near Surdash village. Dr  Bakhtiar Ameen try to lift ( for Joking)   nearly cubic block of Qamchuqa Formation which isb  t rested on one corner, it condition is due to balancing. this picture is taken in 2008 when Dr Bakhtiar was PHD student. God give him very long life with you too (En Sha Alla).

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=436714536380454&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Folding and extension joints along the outer arc of an anticline in the Balambo Formation near Dola Chaut Village, Said Sadiq area

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=436179106433997&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Neural folds ( or vertical folds) in the Qulqula Radiolarian Formation near Walasmit valkligeat the northwest of Said Sadiq Town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=436173219767919&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

Crenulated ( minorly refolded) limestone of Kometan Formation at 300 m to the west of Said Sadiq town on Ashbulagh mountain

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=435993359785905&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

High amplitude anticline connected with low amplitude syncline inside Kolosh (marl) and Sinjar Formations ( limestone), the photo looks north in Qopi Qaradagh mountain

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=435992499785991&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Snake like folding in Balambo Formation in the Safra abd Zarun Valley near Galala village 10km south of Mawat town

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=435843969800844&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

The oil companies spent several millions dollars for reports of surface geology in Kurdistan. i saw some of them that contain no such photos. the oil occurrence depend on these structures and their style of deformation. one of the oil companies are working in the area of this photo ( between Sulaimani city and Penjween town, when i show them these photos they changed their previous decision. so one photo my spare millions of dollars but for one who can interpret it,not for one look at it superficially.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=435830959802145&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater

 

 

 

Typical and well developed syncline along northeastern limb of Piramagroon anticline, to the west of Old Hanarran village in Qula Rash Valley.

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=435055276546380&set=pb.100001257351245.-2207520000.1472893965.&type=3&theater